Reiss: Rising Through the Ranks in Bodybuilding


Congratulations to our Champion who took 1st place in the GPO Battle Of The Midlands bodybuilding competition in Light Heavyweight Class! 


What was the body building competition and what prize did you win?

20th August 2023 - no accolades as such, but I did get a nice trophy.

Why did you decide to compete?

I like to challenge myself, bodybuilding for me is the embodiment of the ultimate test both mentally and physically, there are zero minutes off, every meal, every step, every workout has purpose and is one step closer towards the goal.

How did it feel being on stage and taking the trophy?

It felt great to be up there again with the fellow athletes and be able to put my best foot forward. It has definitely spurred the motivation to get up there again soon and chase the IFBB pro card for 2024.

Continue reading

Coach Spotlight - Javi Gomez


What Does Fitness mean to you? 

Fitness is progression, the ability to progress always, no ma8er the marginality of such gain.  To take each day head on and push the body to its limits and test one’s mental fortitude.  

When did you start your fitness journey? 

I have always been an active individual, from a young age coming from where I come from it has always been a necessity to spend time outside. Whether this be competing in surf lifesaving, representing my club nationally, surfing, competing in athletics and gig rowing to name but a couple of endeavours. It all started for me when rugby really took over. I had been playing since I was a young boy, initially playing with friends on the weekends for fun, until it began to dominate my life more and more. College was when it really took over and I also became extremely invested in the accompanying aspects of what it took to perform at a high level, whether this be nutritional strategies, targeted strength and conditioning protocols, recovery methodologies to name but a few. Being exposed to competition at a high level allowed me to push my training to the next level and compete against exceptional individuals. Since then, it has instilled in me the necessity to push my physical capabilities whilst also being a strength and conditioning coach for high level athletes, testing them accordingly, some of whom represent their country internationally.

How has fitness helped you in other areas of your life? 

Fitness has taught me discipline, mental resilience and helped me develop a will to persist with all my endeavours.  

What do you bring to the Physique Academy? 

Having worked with professional athletes in the past, implementing appropriate training strategies for their desired goal has allowed me to bring an expansive approach to the application to certain individuals no matter who they are. To. work collaboratively with them to ensure they achieve their goals both physical and performance based. Whilst offering an educational experience for the client, delving into physiology, anatomy, and biomechanics.

Continue reading

Nutrition: Supplementation


What is fitness testing?

The world of supplements is an absolute minefield of pills and powders that are nothing more than a waste of time and money. However, hidden within this industry are a number of supplements, backed up by extensive research, that have been shown time and again to improve both health and training performance. The supplement industry and marketing around certain supplements can lead to money being wasted on supplements that are ineffective or lack the effectiveness that is claimed.

There are a number of research backed supplements that are effective and can be utilised to aid performance in both training and competition. It is important to research specific supplements and how they may assist each individual and their outcomes..

The following blog contains a breakdown of the most evidence-based supplements currently available - what they do, when to take them and the dosage required. This will enable each individual to make an informed decision about which, if any supplements may be of benefit or performance enhancing.

It is important to consider that all supplements, regardless of how effective research has shown them to be, can only ever ‘supplement’ a diet and training program. Supplements will never replace hard, intense training or adherence to a prescribed nutrition protocol.

Continue reading

Training: Fitness Testing


What is fitness testing?

Fitness testing is a method to identify an individual's fitness level using a number of specific assessments. Fitness tests may be sport specific or more general to identify an individual's competence within a number of components of fitness

There are multiple different fitness tests that can be done to test a range of different components of fitness…

  • Strength
  • Power
  • Capacity
  • Endurance

Fitness tests can be expensive laboratory or equipment intensive tests or simple inexpensive field based tests. It is important that no matter which tests are utilised, they are kept consistent, allowing participants to identify their baseline and use the same method to evaluate progress.

There are a number of reasons to test fitness. Ultimately fitness testing comes down to establishing an individual's ability at that moment in time, identifying strengths, highlighting weaknesses and providing information to help build a program to improve from that point onwards. Fitness testing can also help evaluate how effective current training is or has been by analysing progress and identifying an individual's ranking against other individuals or athletes.

Continue reading

Mindset: Building Habits


What is fitness?

Habits generally account for about 40% of an individual's behaviour. In order to make progress in health, happiness and general life, an understanding of how to build new habits and the functioning of current habits is essential.

A simple strategy can be adopted to build and sustain new and successful habits…

1. Start with an incredibly small habit.

“Make it so easy you can't say no”

Most people are under the illusion that there is a requirement for significant motivation and willpower to build and sustain new habits.

Continue reading

Training: Fitness Attributes


What is fitness?

‘What is fitness?’ - a question commonly asked within the fitness industry, but one which is often answered subjectively or inexplicitly. At Physique Academy, our training processes are constantly being improved to support the training and progress of the fitness of each individual, making it important to give an objective definition of fitness.

Physique Academy measures fitness as the average of 4 attributes: strength, power, capacity, and endurance. This is objective and measurable. It is what our fitness testing is based upon and allows us to test each component individually to calculate the overall fitness of an individual, offering them insight into which areas they might need to improve, and providing objective measurements to progress upon. This definition can further be deconstructed by individually defining each attribute.

  • Strength = the ability to generate maximum force.
  • Power = the ability to generate maximum work in the shortest time period.
  • Capacity = the ability to maintain high work output over a prolonged time period.
  • Endurance = the ability to maintain high work output sustainably.


Energy Systems

The body adapts to different situations in life by producing energy in three different ways to most effectively meet the demands. Fitness is our body's ability to meet the demands of life. This is why three of the fitness attributes are closely tied to the three main energy systems.

  • The Anaerobic Alactic (ATP-CP) Energy System is required for high intensity and short durations. This system utilises your body’s CP (creatine phosphate) stores to generate huge amounts of energy for short durations. This is the dominant system tested when performing the power attribute of fitness.
  • The Anaerobic Lactic (Glycolytic) Energy System is required for short to medium intensity situations lasting from 10 seconds to a max of approximately 90 seconds. This system utilises glucose that comes from carbohydrates to generate energy and is the preferred energy source for high intensity exercise. This is the dominant system tested when performing the capacity attribute of fitness.
  • The Aerobic Energy System is required for low intensity and long duration situations. The aerobic system requires oxygen and is what is used for day-to-day activities. Any activity over a minute in duration will begin to utilise the aerobic energy system, it will become more dominant the longer the activity. This system is tested when performing the endurance attribute of fitness.


Continue reading

Mindset: Fixed Mindset Vs Growth Mindset


There are two opposing mindsets which can be adopted in our approach to life;

  • A growth mindset
  • A fixed mindset.


The significant differences between a growth mindset and fixed mindset can be highlighted in a simple table:

 Fixed MindsetGrowth Mindset
Approach to challengesAvoid challengesEmbrace challenges
Approach to obstaclesView barriers as impossible to overcomeView barriers as opportunities to persist
Approach to effortView effort as unproductive or uselessView effort as the path to development and mastery
Response to criticismIgnore useful negative feedbackConsider and learn from negative feedback
Response to success of othersFeel threat from others' successFind lessons and inspiration from others' success
ResultMay cause individuals to plateau and fall short of their full potentialMay help individuals reach higher levels of achievement
OutcomeDeterministic view of the worldGreater sense of free will


Continue reading

Nutrition: Electrolytes


Electrolytes are minerals dissolved in water or other bodily fluids that carry an electric charge. They include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphate. Electrolytes are essential for the basic cellular functioning of the human body.



Sodium is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. Sodium plays important roles in the body…

  • Maintaining cellular homeostasis
  • Maintaining extracellular fluid volume
  • Regulating blood pressure
  • Controlling overall electrolyte balance

An individual's general sodium serum levels should fall  between 135 to 145 mmol/L. Hyponatremia occurs when an individual's sodium levels fall below 135 mmol/L and is a condition whereby the balance of water is in excess of the balance of salt in the body. The result of hyponatremia may be symptoms such as headaches, confusion, nausea, delirium, muscle cramps, seizure, coma, and/or death. Hypernatremia occurs when an individual’s sodium levels rise above 145 mmol/L and is a condition whereby the balance of water is in deficit of the balance of salt in the body. The result of hypernatremia may be symptoms such as severe thirst, rapid breathing, sleeping difficulty, restlessness, muscle twitching, seizures, coma, and/or death.

General recommendations for sodium consumption is less than 2,300mg per day. There are a number of simple ways that an individual may be able to decrease the sodium levels, such as eating more vegetables, avoiding highly processed foods, finding ‘low sodium’ or ‘no added salt’ substitutes and replacing salt with low sodium seasoning. On the other hand, if an individual has low sodium levels, they may want to gradually add more salt to their diet.

Continue reading

Training: Progressive Overload


Progressive overload simply means doing more over time. This can mean more weight over time, more reps over time, or more sets over time. There are many other ways to progressively overload the body which will be highlighted within this blog.

Although progressive overload is straightforward, simply telling someone to add 10 more kg or do two more reps with the same weight is not sustainable. There is a huge gap in fitness ability from person to person. If you are just starting training, you are likely to see huge gains in the first few months of adherence to a training program, however, as you start plateauing or reaching peak performance, the protocol becomes more complex. Therefore, it is impossible to offer a blanket prescription for progressive overload. There are 10 guidelines which can be followed in order to maximise your results from progressive overload


1. Progressive overload starts with perfect form

  • When starting a specific movement, it is important to move the weight with perfect technique.
  • The weight you can lift with perfect form is the weight that you should start with and look to build upon over time.
  • If your form deteriorates, this indicates that you are not strong enough to lift the weight.
  • Progress weights slowly over time to build strength and muscle whilst avoiding injury


2. Progressive overload methods vary with training experience

  • Methods to progressively overload will be different based on training age, gender and other individual differences.
  • Beginners may be required to progressively overload by learning to perform an exercise correctly and improving form gradually over time.


Continue reading

Mindset: Optimise your Mental Health


There are many ways to improve your mental health, physical health, and performance. There are five things we all should strive to do every 24 hours, and they form the basis of mental health, physical health and performance. The implementation of these five elements every 24 hours we place ourselves in the best possible position to thrive and overcome any challenges….


01 Sleep

  • Mental health: Lack of sleep has been linked to an increased risk of developing depression, anxiety, and other mental health disorders. It can also lead to irritability, mood swings, and difficulty with cognitive tasks such as decision-making and problem-solving.
  • Physical health: During sleep, the body repairs and restores tissues, muscles, and organs. Lack of sleep has been linked to an increased risk of developing chronic conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. It can also weaken the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to illness and infections.
  • Memory and learning: Sleep plays a vital role in consolidating memories and processing new information, which is important for learning and retaining new information.
  • Athletic performance: Lack of sleep can lead to decreased endurance, slower reaction times, and reduced accuracy, all of which can negatively impact athletic performance.
  • Mood and stress: Getting enough sleep is important for regulating mood and reducing stress. Sleep deprivation can lead to increased levels of stress and anxiety, making it harder for individuals to cope with daily stressors.

To promote good sleep, it's recommended that adults get between 7-9 hours of sleep per night. Establishing good sleep habits such as going to bed and waking up at consistent times, avoiding electronics before bed, and creating a comfortable sleep environment can help promote better sleep and improve overall health and well-being.


02 Sunlight

  • Vitamin D: Sunlight is the primary source of vitamin D, which is crucial for healthy bones, teeth, and muscles. It also helps regulate the immune system, reduce inflammation, and improve mood.
  • Mental health: Exposure to sunlight has been shown to boost mood and reduce symptoms of depression. This is thought to be due to the release of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that regulates mood.
  • Sleep: Sunlight exposure helps regulate our circadian rhythm, which influences our sleep patterns. This can lead to better sleep quality and reduced insomnia.

It's essential to note that too much exposure to sunlight can be harmful to our health, increasing the risk of skin cancer and premature ageing. It's best to aim for moderate sunlight exposure, particularly in the morning or late afternoon when the sun's rays are less intense. Additionally, wearing protective clothing and using sunscreen is crucial when spending time outdoors.


03 Movement

  • Physical health: Regular movement, such as walking, jogging, or strength training, can help maintain a healthy weight, improve cardiovascular health, build muscle and bone strength, and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease.
  • Mental health: Movement has been shown to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression, improve mood, and boost cognitive function. It can also increase self-esteem, reduce stress, and improve sleep quality.
  • Brain health: Movement can promote neuroplasticity, which is the brain's ability to form and reorganise connections between neurons. This can lead to improved cognitive function and a reduced risk of age-related cognitive decline.

It's essential to note that movement doesn't have to be intense or time-consuming to be beneficial. Even small amounts of movement throughout the day, such as taking short walks or doing household chores, can be beneficial. The key is to find movement that you enjoy and can incorporate into your daily routine. Additionally, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider before starting a new exercise program, particularly if you have a chronic health condition or injury.

By incorporating regular movement into our daily lives, we can enjoy improved physical health, better mental well-being, and a better quality of life

Continue reading

Nutrition: Caffeine: Performance Benefits


Caffeine is a naturally occurring stimulant that belongs to a class of compounds known as xanthines. It can be found in a number of natural products, but also produced synthetically.

Caffeine works by blocking the action of a neurotransmitter called adenosine, which is responsible for promoting sleep and suppressing arousal. By blocking the action of adenosine, caffeine can increase alertness, reduce fatigue, and improve cognitive performance.

Caffeine is classified as a psychoactive drug because it affects the central nervous system, and it has both positive and negative effects on the body depending on the dose and individual tolerance. At low to moderate doses, caffeine can have beneficial effects such as improved cognitive function, increased endurance, and enhanced mood. However, at high doses, caffeine can cause negative side effects such as anxiety and insomnia.

Caffeine is widely consumed and has a number of performance benefits.

  1. Spare muscle glycogen. Caffeine helps the body utilise fat as a fuel source instead of relying on glycogen stores. Caffeine increases fat oxidation and decreases muscle glycogen breakdown by increasing the breakdown of fatty acids, which are then used as a fuel source during exercise. This leads to reduced reliance on glycogen stores, sparing them for later use. In addition, caffeine Improves insulin sensitivity which can help the body use glucose more efficiently and spare muscle glycogen. Overall, through sparing muscle glycogen, caffeine can be particularly beneficial for endurance athletes who need to maintain their glycogen stores over long periods of exercise.
  1. Increase muscle activation. Caffeine has been shown to increase muscle activation during exercise, particularly in high-intensity and strength training activities. This effect occurs as an effect of caffeine whereby it…
  • Increases central nervous system stimulation resulting in an increase in muscle activation and improved performance.
  • Decreases perceived exertion allowing individuals to push harder and activate their muscles to a greater degree.
  • Enhances motor unit recruitment leading to more muscle fibers being activated during exercise.
  • Improves muscle contractility causing muscles to contract more efficiently and with greater force.
  1. Increase alertness and improve decision making. Caffeine has a number of beneficial cognitive functions which may have a positive impact on performance.
  • Blocks adenosine receptors: Adenosine is a chemical in the brain that is associated with sleep and relaxation. Caffeine blocks adenosine receptors, which can increase alertness and reduce feelings of fatigue.
  • Increases dopamine levels: Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is associated with feelings of pleasure and reward, and it can improve motivation and decision making.
  • Improves cognitive function; including attention, reaction time, and memory.
  • Enhances mood: Increasing levels of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine can help individuals feel more positive and motivated.
  1. Improve endurance. The impact of caffeine on endurance is significant and has been identified through the following mechanisms…
  • Increases fat oxidation
  • Reduces perceived exertion
  • Enhances muscle activation
  • Improves respiratory function
  • Increases pain threshold
  1. Reduce the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). This means that individuals feel like they are exerting less effort even when they are performing at the same intensity. Rate of perceived exertion is a subjective measure of how hard someone feels like they are working during exercise or physical activity. RPE is typically measured on a scale of 0 to 10, with 0 indicating no effort at all and 10 indicating maximum effort. Caffeine reduces RPE as it blocks adenosine receptors, enhances pain tolerance and enhances motor unit recruitment. The overall effect is an athlete may be able to push harder for a longer period of time within training and competition.

Overall, there are a huge number of benefits from the consumption of caffeine in order to enhance performance. However, it's worth noting that the effects of caffeine can vary depending on the individual and the amount consumed. Excessive consumption of caffeine can also have negative effects, such as insomnia, and increased heart rate. It's important to consume caffeine in moderation and to be aware of your individual tolerance levels. The recommended dose varies by body weight, but it’s typically about 200–400 mg, taken 30–60 minutes before a workout.

Nutrition: Creatine - The Basics


Creatine is a naturally occurring compound that is found in small amounts in red meat and fish. It is also produced by the human body in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Creatine is involved in energy production and is particularly important for high-intensity, short-duration activities such as weightlifting and sprinting.

Many athletes and bodybuilders take creatine supplements to improve their performance and increase muscle mass. Creatine supplements are available in various forms, including powders, capsules, and drinks. These supplements are generally safe and effective when taken in appropriate doses.

It is important to note that creatine supplementation is not necessary for most people, as the body can produce enough creatine on its own. However, some athletes and bodybuilders may benefit from creatine supplementation, particularly if they are engaged in high-intensity training or have difficulty consuming enough creatine-rich foods in their diet. It is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

Creatine supplementation has been shown to provide several benefits, including:

  1. Increased muscle mass: Creatine supplementation can help increase muscle mass, particularly when combined with resistance training. It does this by increasing water content in muscle cells, leading to improved muscle volume.
  2. Improved athletic performance: Creatine supplementation has been shown to improve performance in high-intensity, short-duration activities such as weightlifting, sprinting, and jumping.
  3. Increased strength: Creatine supplementation has been shown to improve strength and power in athletes, allowing them to lift heavier weights and perform at a higher level.
  4. Faster muscle recovery: Creatine supplementation can help improve muscle recovery following exercise, allowing athletes to train more frequently and recover more quickly.
  5. Improved brain function: Creatine supplementation may also have cognitive benefits, such as improving memory and attention, especially in vegetarians or vegans who have lower baseline creatine levels.

It is important to note that not everyone will experience these benefits to the same extent, and individual responses may vary. Additionally, creatine supplementation should be used in combination with a healthy diet and exercise program, and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Mindset: Cognitive Benefits of Training


Regular training has a number of cognitive benefits:

  • Improvements in memory and learning
  • Reductions in stress and anxiety
  • Improvements in creativity, focus and attention
  • Reduction in the rate of cognitive decline
  • Improvements in sleep

Engaging in a physical pursuit such as fitness training has been linked to a range of cognitive benefits, which can have significant implications for overall physical and mental health and functioning. One key cognitive benefit of exercise is its ability to enhance memory and learning. Exercise has been shown to increase the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that promotes the growth and survival of neurons. This can lead to improvements in learning and memory function, as well as greater neuroplasticity.

In addition to its effects on memory and learning, exercise has also been linked to reductions in stress and anxiety. Regular physical activity has been shown to decrease levels of the stress hormone cortisol and increase the production of endorphins, which can improve mood and reduce symptoms of anxiety. This can have a positive impact on cognitive function, as chronic stress and anxiety can impair memory, attention, and executive function. In addition, stress and anxiety often act as a catalyst to unhealthy eating behaviours and lifestyle choices. Any reduction in stress may lead to a healthier and more capable body.

Another cognitive benefit of exercise is its ability to enhance creativity, focus and attention. Exercise can improve blood flow to the brain, which can increase the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to brain cells. Additionally, exercise has been shown to increase the production of neurotransmitters like dopamine and norepinephrine, which are involved in regulating attention and arousal. This can result in improvements in creativity, focus, attention, and cognitive performance.

Moreover, regular exercise has been shown to help prevent or slow cognitive decline in older adults. Exercise has been found to improve cognitive function, particularly in areas related to memory and executive function. This can have important implications for maintaining independence and quality of life as we age.

Finally, exercise has also been linked to improvements in sleep quality. Regular physical activity can improve sleep duration, quality, and efficiency, which can have a positive impact on cognitive function. Sleep plays a crucial role in memory consolidation, and getting enough restful sleep is essential for optimal cognitive functioning. In addition, sleep is vital for restoration of body tissues and recovery. Getting sufficient, high-quality sleep will enhance an individual's performance in everyday life and training.

Continue reading

Training: Hypertrophy Training Vs Strength Training


Regular training has a number of cognitive benefits:

It is a common question in fitness whether it is better to train for hypertrophy or strength.

The answer generally depends on the specific fitness goals of everyone, or how the training will enhance their performance within their chosen physical pursuit and lifestyle.

To break this down very simply…

  • If you want to grow the size of your muscle, you should train for hypertrophy.
  • If you want to pick up heavier weights and produce more force, you should train for strength.

However, training for these two different goals is not mutually exclusive as there is some overlap between the two methodologies. There are a number of differences and similarities between the two goals and training required to achieve them.


Hypertrophy Training

Hypertrophy is short for muscular hypertrophy and is the act of growing a muscle through exercise. Generally, hypertrophy describes training to build muscle mass. Individuals typically use this type of training to grow their muscles for aesthetic purposes. However, increasing muscle size is a prerequisite for strength training as it provides a solid base for developing maximal strength.

Continue reading

Mindset: Goal Setting


What Is Smart Goal Setting?

Smart goal setting is a process of creating specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound goals. The acronym SMART stands for:

  • Specific: A goal should be clear and well-defined. It should answer the questions of who, what, where, when, why, and how.
  • Measurable: A goal should be quantifiable, and there should be a way to measure progress towards achieving it. It helps to define specific metrics to track.
  • Achievable: A goal should be realistic and attainable. It should be challenging enough to motivate you but not so difficult that it's impossible to achieve.
  • Realistic: A goal should be aligned with your overall objectives and mission. It should be important to you and realistic and take into consideration your life or work.
  • Time-bound: A goal should have a deadline or timeframe for completion. It helps to create a sense of urgency and accountability.

By following the SMART goal-setting process, you can increase your chances of achieving your goals by breaking them down into manageable and actionable steps. Additionally, you can regularly evaluate and adjust your progress towards your goal.

Why Is It Important To Set Fitness Goals?

Setting fitness goals is not just important, but it is critical to achieving and maintaining a healthy and active lifestyle. Without setting specific goals, individuals may find themselves unsure of what they want to achieve, leading to a lack of focus and motivation. Furthermore, the goals need to be challenging and realistic, providing individuals with a sense of accomplishment when they reach milestones towards their overall objective.

One of the significant benefits of setting fitness goals is the increased accountability and responsibility it places on individuals. Having a specific target to work towards means individuals must take responsibility for their actions and make conscious choices to prioritize exercise and healthy habits. As a result, they are more likely to make healthier choices and remain committed to their fitness regimen over time.

Measuring progress towards fitness goals provides a sense of accomplishment and encourages individuals to stay on track. However, tracking progress is not limited to just achieving the end goal. By setting smaller, achievable milestones along the way, individuals can celebrate each accomplishment and stay motivated to continue working towards their ultimate objective.

Continue reading

Training: Fundamental Movement Patterns


It's common to complicate exercise with new and complex protocols claiming to provide fast results. However, the basics of exercise are often overlooked. Mastering the six functional movement patterns is crucial for improving everyday function and reducing the risk of injury.

What Are The Functional Movement Patterns?

The functional movement patterns are the foundation of exercise, as they compose all our daily movements. They include the squat, lunge, hinge, core, push, and pull. These movements are essential for developing new neural pathways that become more efficient with practice.

Each movement pattern plays a significant role in everyday life and training them regularly can improve your ability to perform daily tasks.

The Foundation Of Exercise

Utilising the fundamental movement patterns is very important within a training regime.  Each time your body coordinates the muscles to perform one of these movement patterns, you’re in the process of developing new neural pathways. The more you perform the movements, the more ingrained and efficient the pathways become, and the more benefits you receive from them.

SQUAT - The squat is a fundamental movement pattern that involves flexing the hips and knees together, which lowers the center of gravity. This movement engages several key muscle groups, including the quadriceps, hamstrings, glutes, adductors, and core. By training the squat, you can improve your overall strength and mobility, as well as your ability to perform everyday tasks like getting up from a seated position with greater ease and stability.

Continue reading

Nutrition: The Importance of Hydration


Water plays a crucial role in various physiological and metabolic processes within the human body. As the main constituent of body fluids, water is vital for maintaining the balance of electrolytes and ensuring the proper functioning of cells, tissues, and organs. The human body relies on water for a wide range of functions, including thermoregulation, digestion, nutrient transportation, joint lubrication, brain function, and waste removal.

In summary, water carries out the following roles within the body…

  • Hydration: Water is necessary to keep the body hydrated. It makes up around 60% of the body's weight, and is essential for the proper functioning of cells, tissues, and organs.
  • Temperature regulation: The body uses water to regulate its temperature through sweating and other cooling mechanisms.
  • Nutrient transportation: Water is necessary to transport nutrients to the cells of the body. It also helps to remove waste products from the body.
  • Joint lubrication: Water helps to lubricate the joints and prevent friction between bones, which can cause pain and inflammation.
  • Digestion: Water is necessary for digestion and absorption of food. It helps to break down food and move it through the digestive system.
  • Brain function: Water is important for brain function and helps to maintain mental clarity and focus.

These roles can be explained in more detail as follows…

Water serves as a coolant for the body during physical activity or when exposed to hot environments. Through sweating, the body loses heat, and water helps to regulate body temperature by facilitating the evaporation of sweat. This mechanism is essential for preventing heat exhaustion, heatstroke, and other heat-related illnesses.

In addition to regulating body temperature, water plays a critical role in digestion by aiding in the breakdown of food and the absorption of nutrients. Water also helps to move waste products through the digestive system and prevent constipation. Moreover, water is essential for the lubrication of joints, which helps to reduce friction and prevent joint pain.

Continue reading

Nutrition: Pyramid Of Priorities


Behaviour And Lifestyle

The foundation of the Pyramid of Priorities is behaviour and lifestyle. Building a nutrition plan upon shaky behaviour and lifestyle factors is unlikely to be successful. The most efficient, optimal nutrition program is destined to fail if it is not paired with a personalised approach that is based on good habits, lifestyle choices and behaviours. When producing a nutrition plan, it is important for individuals to consider how their lifestyle will be complemented by the protocols they are looking to adopt and how they should adapt their behaviours to make the plan sustainable and guarantee the results they desire.

Energy Balance

The next level on the pyramid is energy balance or caloric intake/expenditure. In terms of nutrition, calories refer to the energy that the body derives from food and drinks consumed. Different types of food contain different amounts of calories, with fats being the most calorie-dense at 9 calories per gram, followed by carbohydrates and protein at 4 calories per gram. The number of calories a person needs can vary depending on factors such as their age, sex, weight, height, and level of physical activity. Caloric intake and expenditure is the governor of weight loss, weight maintenance or weight gain.

  • Calorie Deficit: Calorie Consumption < Calorie Expenditure
  • Calorie Maintenance: Calorie Consumption = Calorie Expenditure
  • Calorie Surplus; Calorie Consumption > Calorie Expenditure


The next level of the pyramid includes macronutrients. Macronutrients are the three main types of nutrients that provide energy and make up the bulk of our diet: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

  • Carbohydrates are the body's primary source of energy and include sugars, starches, and fibre.
  • Proteins are important for growth, repair, and maintenance of tissues in the body. They are made up of amino acids.
  • Fats are essential for many functions in the body, such as providing energy, insulating, and protecting organs, and helping to absorb certain vitamins.

Each of these macronutrients provides a different number of calories per gram. The amount of each macronutrient a person needs can vary depending on factors such as their age, sex, weight, height, and level of physical activity. A balanced diet typically includes a mix of all three macronutrients.


The next level of the pyramid is micronutrients. Micronutrients are nutrients that the body requires in small amounts for proper growth, development, and functioning. Micronutrients include vitamins, minerals, and trace elements.

Continue reading

Motivation Vs Discipline


In fitness, there is an ongoing debate over discipline and motivation. 

The concept of motivation is often disregarded and sometimes claimed to be inexistent, whilst discipline is deemed to be an invaluable skill, acquired through immense sacrifice. 

There is some truth in this, however, at Physique Academy we see both discipline and motivation to coexist with valuable characteristics.

  • Motivation is what gets you going. It gives you energy and direction. Motivation is an inner force that can come and go based on internal and external drivers.
  • Discipline is what keeps you going. It is doing what you need to do to reach your goals even when you don’t feel like it. Discipline can be developed through practice.


Continue reading

Principles of Training


The Principles of Training

The principles of training act as a guide to the training process regardless of an athlete's age, background, or goals. They can be used to guide an athlete when considering whether a training program is appropriate and should be utilised to optimise the training process.



Training should be specific to individuals and their goals. To be specific within training requires athletes to train the energy system which requires development and the capabilities needed to execute the task being trained for. Before applying this principle, it is important to test the components of fitness which are important to the attribute to identify strengths and weaknesses.

The outcome of applying specificity within performance-based training is it objectively facilitates development within specific components of fitness leading to a higher level of performance overall fitness.



Stress is required to progress and improve fitness. Overload will cause long-term adaptations, enabling the body to become more efficient and cope with higher demands of training.

Continue reading